Posts Tagged ‘exercise’

BY LESTER HO

This comes as I see a post by Diane Fu talking about how the eyes contribute to weightlifting. And recently I have read several posts on what can be done to fix the snatch. So adding to what you probably have already read, here’s my list of 8 points to consider when you are looking to fix your snatch:

1. Grip

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Your grip should allow you to comfortably get the barbell to your hips when coming up from the ground.

How narrow or how wide you go in your grip determines many other factors in your snatch. An example would be a narrow grip which means the bar sits lower at your hips when you are in the power position or fully extended. So slight adjustments to your technique to bring the bar higher and close to the hips are required. Fixing your grip also depends on flexibility and strength in your joints. Going wider, although allowing the bar to move into a better position at the hip crest, may be strenuous on your wrists and shoulders in the receiving position. Another issue with the grip is not having a full grip when setting up. This results in the hand being loose and possible friction against the bar which could result in gaining calluses easily.

2. Feet

Feet position will be a common question to the coach. How wide, how pointed out etc. Having them forward or barely pointing out would be a very general answer. If we look at individual differences, we then have to consider flexibility and lever lengths (this I mentioned when I spoke about the start position in a previous post). This will determine how you set your feet for optimal force production and stability. I will talk abit more about the feet in the next point about the toes since weight distribution is related to the feet as well.

3. Toes

Toes contribute to the understanding of weight distribution. If the toes are too active and you can feel weight moving towards your toes, you know that the centre of mass is moving too far forward. When talking about weight distribution, common points brought up include feeling your weight through the mid-foot, sitting back on the heels in the first pull, ball of the foot/flat-footed in the second pull etc. In my opinion and from a biomechanical perspective, weight distribution needs to be as centered as possible in order to achieve maximum stability. I’ll just post a question regarding balance. It’s hard to balance a pen on its tip right? Same for your feet. It’s hard to balance on your toes and more muscles need to work just to maintain balance if the contact surface between the feet and ground is reduced right? If more work is needed to maintain balance, less work can be done to produce force to generate a ground-reaction force (GRF) strong enough to move the weight effectively and efficiently (read the section about GRF here).

4. Shoulders

Position of the shoulders help cue the right positions to be held in the snatch. Keeping your shoulder blades back allow for the lats to be engaged and allow for a stronger receiving position at the bottom. Ensuring that this happens will prevent firstly loose shoulders in the first pull which results in losing the slack when picking the weight off the ground and subsequently have the hips shoot up too quickly. In the second pull, a poor shoulder position results in less force being transferred to the barbell and the barbell moving away from the body. Keeping the shoulders blades back even after initiating the second pull allows the bar to remain in a straight path when the hips “punch” the weight up instead of the bar being “punched” out of a straight path.

5. Head/Eyes

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Looking down during the movements might not be a good thing as you will lean your body forward. Picture from David Lasnier Sports Training.

Our sense of balance is established through feedback from the eyes and ears. They provide information regarding what the horizon is and allows us to maintain stability through our muscular and skeletal system. In simple terms, where our head is directed, our body will follow (wise words from a wise man I know). Looking down or too far up will result in the body having excessive lean through the snatch. Therefore, correcting your focal point and keeping your visual focus at the right level will allow you to attain a consistent and stable movement pattern in the snatch.

6. Hips

When we talk about the hips in the snatch, we see it as the driving force in the body for the entire snatch movement. Many strength and conditioning coaches see the weightlifting movements as a good carry-over exercise to many athletic movements due to the violent hip extension involved. Yes. it is definitely hip extension involved but understanding the direction of force applied by the hip is important to have effective and efficient force production and transference. Treating this portion of the snatch as a romanian deadlift is a big no-no due to the fact that the hips are moving forward and not in a upward motion. One of the big factors to a snatch is vertical displacement and to drive the bar upwards, the hips need to be moving upwards, not forward.

7. Knees

Like the hips, the knees also contribute to force production through the legs for the second pull in the weightlifting movements. But many do not focus enough on the knees due to the excessive emphasis on the hip extension which as mentioned contributes to high force outputs. For the knees to contribute, the knees can’t be straight at any point until the second pull is completed. This basically means from the moment the bar gets lifted off the ground, the knees cannot reach full extension. This is to allow the knees to go into the transition phase and let the double-knee bend occur. With that, the stretch-shortening cycle allows for the quads to be utilised to contribute to force production in the second pull. This also means that in the second pull, it’s not only hip extension but knee extension which gives the violent upward propulsion of the body and barbell. So understanding how your knees move allow you to effectively produce force in the right (vertical) direction.

8. Bar

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In the second pull, the bar needs to remain close in order for it to move in a straighter path.

Notice how the last thing to consider is the barbell. This is because if you focus internally on what your body is doing, you are making the bar move the way it’s supposed to move. It is afterall an inanimate object which requires you to manipulate it during the lift. More importantly, the one thing to consider regarding the bar is to keep it as close to your body as possible. If the previous points are taken into consideration and adhered to, the bar is going to be kept close to your body and eventually the bar will travel in a straighter path, making it move upwards more effectively and make the receiving of the barbell an easier one at the bottom position.

So when fixing the snatch, there are these 8 points I would actually focus on. Sometimes fixing one of them could result in fixing a few of the other points. Apart from the bar, the rest of them are not in any order of importance (each of them is as important as the others and needs to be addressed if they are an issue). They are equally critical to helping you achieve better movement mechanics in the snatch and subsequently better performance.

by Chris Kresser (web)

picture of paleo person jumpingThere’s no question that regular exercise is essential to health. Our paleolithic ancestors had a different word for exercise: life. For the vast majority of our evolutionary history, humans had to exert ourselves – often quite strenuously – to get food. We naturally spent a lot of time outdoors in the sun, walking, hunting, gathering, and performing various other physically-oriented tasks. We had no concept of this as “exercise” or “working out”. It was just life.

Things are different today. 60% of American adults are not regularly active, and 25% are complete couch potatoes – they get no exercise at all, other than walking back and forth between the car, the cubicle and the refrigerator. This lack of physical activity has profound consequences. Regular movement protects us from disease in several ways, but most importantly it prevents oxidative damage and inflammation – the primary mechanisms underlying most modern, degenerative diseases. This explains why those who are completely sedentary have between 1.5 and 2.5 times the risk of developing heart disease and a higher risk for virtually all modern, degenerative disease.

On the other hand, we’ve got the exercise fanatics. Many Americans have been caught up in the fitness craze over the last 40 years, devoting countless hours to jogging, the Stairmaster or the treadmill in the hopes of slimming down, getting healthy and preventing disease. But while this type of activity may help with stress management, research suggests that it’s useless for weight loss and may in fact be detrimental to health.

If you doubt this, you’ll have to explain why Americans have continually gained weight over the last 40 years, in spite of increased leisure time exercise and increased energy expenditure.

Why “cardio” doesn’t work for weight loss

When I say “cardio”, I’m referring to steady-state, repetitive activity done at a moderate intensity like jogging outdoors, running on a treadmill or climbing the Stairmaster. [Side note: the idea that you have to perform this type of activity to benefit your heart and vascular system is false. Anything that places a demand on the muscles – including so-called anaerobic activities like weightlifting – will also condition the heart and vascular system.]

Most people are surprised to learn that cardio doesn’t work for weight loss. How could this be? There are three main reasons:

  • caloric burn during exercise is generally small;
  • people who exercise more also tend to eat more (which negates the weight regulating effect of exercise); and,
  • increasing specific periods of exercise may cause people to become more sedentary otherwise.

In an example of the first reason, a study following women over a one-year period found that in order to lose one kilogram (2.2 pounds) of fat, they had to exercise for an average of 77 hours. That’s a lot of time on the treadmill just to lose 2 pounds!

In an example of the second reason, a study found that people who exercise tend to eat more afterwards, and that they tend to crave high-calorie foods. The title of this study says it all: “Acute compensatory eating following exercise is associated with implicit hedonic wanting for food.” I love it when researchers have a sense of humor.

In an example of the third reason, one study assigned 34 overweight and obese women to an exercise program for 8 weeks. Fat loss at the end of the study was an average of 0.0kg. Not very impressive. But the researchers noticed that some women did lose weight, while others actually gained. What was the difference? In the women that didn’t lose weight, the increase in specific periods of exercise corresponded with a decrease in overall energy expenditure. Translation: they were more likely to be couch potatoes when they weren’t exercising, which negated the calorie-burning effect of their workouts.

If you’re still not convinced, the Cochrane group did a review of 43 individual studies on exercise for weight loss. Study length ranged from 3 to 12 months, and exercise sessions lasted on average 45 minutes with a frequency of 3-5 times per week. The results? On average, the additional weight loss from exercise averaged about 1 kg (2.2 pounds). Meh. Assuming they worked out for 45 minutes 4x/wk over 6 months, that means they had to exercise 69 hours to lose that 1 kg.

Why cardio may be harmful

Too much cardio exercise has a number of harmful effects on the body:

  • increases oxidative damage
  • increases inflammation (the root of all disease)
  • depresses the immune system
  • decreases fat metabolism
  • disrupts cortisol levels
  • causes neurodegeneration

Overtraining is especially damaging because of its effects on cortisol. We discussed cortisol at length in Step 6: Manage Your Stress, but in this context what’s important to understand is that too much exercise can disrupt our natural cortisol rhythm and drive levels too high initially, and depress them over time. Cortisol dysregulation promotes abdominal fat gain and muscle loss, which in turn causes further weight gain.

There’s also some evidence that frequent endurance exercise may promote – rather than prevent – heart disease. Dr. Kurt Harris summarized a study performed on 102 active marathon runners and 102 age-matched controls to determine the effect of aerobic exercise on cardiovascular health.

The marathoners were between 50 and 72 years of age, and they ran an average of 35 miles per week. They had no known history of heart disease or diabetes. The control group was similarly aged and also had no history of cardiovascular or metabolic disease.

You might be surprised to learn that the marathon runners were three times more likely to have heart damage than the non-runners. Among the runners, there were 12 heart attacks vs. 4 attacks in the non-runners.

In another study by the same authors, the more marathoners ran, the higher their likelihood of heart disease. In fact, the number of marathons ran was an independent predictor of the likelihood of irreversible damage to the heart tissue.

No cardio? Then what should we do instead?

In short, we should move like our ancestors. They didn’t strap on a heart monitor and take off for a 45-minute jog, nor did they go down and swim laps for an hour in the local lake. Yet they were extremely fit and almost entirely free of the modern diseases that plague us today.

They performed low-intensity movements like walking, gathering foods or working in other capacities on a regular basis. These periods of low-intensity activity were punctuated by brief periods of much higher-intensity activity – such as going on a hunt, running for a predator or fighting for survival.

This is the type of movement our bodies are adapted for, and thus this is what we should aim for in our daily lives. But how do we do that? As Mark Sisson suggests, we should:

  1. Move frequently at a slow pace
  2. Lift heavy things and sprint occasionally

Move frequently at a slow pace

Moving frequently at a slow pace means approximately 3-5 hours a week of low level activity like walking, cycling, gardening, hiking, performing manual labor, etc. This mimics our ancestral pattern of movement, helps maintain a healthy weight, promotes proper metabolic function and provides a foundation for more strenuous activity. Another benefit of this type of activity is that it’s often performed outdoors. Spending time outdoors reduces stress, increases vitamin D levels, and brings us pleasure, joy and a sense of connection with the world around us.

I think one of the best ways to do this type of movement is to integrate it into your daily life. This could include commuting to work and doing errands on foot or by bicycle, taking the stairs instead of the elevator, doing your own gardening and yard work, etc.

Lift heavy things and sprint occasionally

In contrast to cardio, this type of exercise involves performing movements at very high intensity for short periods of time – usually between 30 seconds and 2 minutes. This is sometimes referred to as high intensity interval training (HIIT).

Several studies have been done comparing HIIT to low-intensity, steady-state (“chronic cardio”, as Mark Sisson calls it) exercise, and HIIT has been shown to be superior in nearly every meaningful marker.

In this study, one group was assigned to “chronic cardio”, while the other was assigned to intervals of 8-second sprints. After 15 weeks, the researchers concluded:

Both exercise groups demonstrated a significant improvement (P less than 0.05) in cardiovascular fitness. However, only the HIIE group had a significant reduction in total body mass (TBM), fat mass (FM), trunk fat and fasting plasma insulin levels.

A pair of studies done at McMaster University found that “6-minutes of pure, hard exercise once a week could be just as effective as an hour of daily moderate activity“, according to the June 6, 2005 CNN article reporting on the study.

The study itself was published in the Journal of Applied Physiology, and it revealed that HIIT resulted in unique changes in skeletal muscle and endurance capacity that were previously believed to require hours of exercise each week.

follow-up study confirmed the results. Despite the fact that the more conventional endurance exercise group spent 97.5 percent more time engaged in exercise, both groups of subjects improved to the same degree. The group that exercised 97.5 percent more received no additional benefit whatsoever from doing so. Considering the wear-and-tear and increased risk of injury associated with that much more exercise, there’s absolutely no point to doing “chronic cardio” when you can receive the same benefits with a fraction of the time and risk by doing HIIT.

The Cochrane study I linked to earlier in the article also found that high-intensity exercise was superior to “chronic cardio”. In particular, the researchers found that high-intensity exercise led to a greater decrease in fasting blood glucose levels than low-intensity exercise.

Why high-intensity exercise is better

bbsIn his excellent book on high-intensity strength training, Body By Science, Dr. Doug McGuff explains that high-intensity training is superior to chronic cardio because it produces a greater stimulus and thus more effectively empties the muscles and liver of glucose. This stimulus can last several days with HIIT, as opposed to just a few hours with low-intensity training.

HIIT also activates hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which mobilizes fatty acids for energy use. This means that during HIIT, both glucose and fatty acids will be burned, leading to greater fat loss and restoration of insulin sensitivity.

High-intensity strength training: best of all?

Both high-intensity running or bicycling sprints and high-intensity strength training are effective. But I believe high-intensity strength training is probably a better choice for most, simply because the wear-and-tear and risk of injury is lower – especially if the strength-training is performed using weight machines as described in Body By Science.

This is, in fact, the method of training I’ve been doing since April of last year. I admit I was somewhat skeptical about it all before I read Body By Science. But the research and the physiology was convincing, so I decided to give it a try.

The results have been incredible. My workout varies in length between 5 and 9 minutes a week. That’s right, I said minutes. With only a few exceptions, I’ve increased the amount of weight I can lift, the time I can lift it, or both, with each successive workout. My strength has increased and my physique is, if anything, better than it was when I was lifting 3x/week for much longer periods.

Where to learn more about HIIT

There are many books on the subject, but these are the two I’d recommend for most people:

  • Body By Science, by Doug McGuff. The “bible” on high-intensity strength training. Goes into great detail on the physiological mechanisms and benefits behind this type of exercise, and explains how to put together a routine. Doug also has a great blog with an active community of people using the BBS approach. To see an example of what this type of workout looks like, check out this video on YouTube. For an in-depth video presentation about BBS, watch this video.
  • The Power of 10: The Once-A-Week Slow Motion Fitness Revolution, by Adam Zickerman & Bill Schilley. This is more of a nuts-and-bolts book, with less theory than BBS and more focus on teaching you how to do this type of workout. It also has specific routines that can be performed at home, on the road and without access to a gym. The approach is slightly different than what’s advocated in BBS, but the basic idea is the same.